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My Research has focused on understanding and meeting the needs of the users of computing. This direction has its roots in the mid 1970's when I provided technical support to developers of on-line data base systems for the Alberta government. Developers of that time were not used to designing systems for end users to use. Rather they designed systems that were run by professional computer operators and that input and output data that was handled by data control clerks.
My early research at the University of Saskatchewan, in the mid 1980's, centered around the common user-oriented functions that provide the basis for most human-computer interactions. It dealt with the confusion that results as users and developers use different words for the same or similar concepts.
During this time I came to an increasing appreciation for a larger problem. While human-computer interaction (HCI) was politely accepted as being related to computing research, it was generally ignored within computing practice. Even if developers were made aware of HCI findings, they generally did not know what to do with them.
My research shifted to focus on how to integrate the needs of different user groups into increasingly complex and increasingly wide spread systems and how to integrate HCI within Software Engineering. As part of the latter, I invited Bill Hefley of the Software Engineering Institute to convene a seminar on "Integrating Human Factors with Software Engineering" that was held at the 1994 Annual Meeting of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society, for which I was the Computer Systems Technical Group chair that year.
During this time I also became increasingly aware of the potential role of standards in transferring research findings (including HCI research findings) into requirements that developers would be expected to meet in their practice. While continuing to research the larger issue of incorporating HCI within the mainstream of development practice, many of my publication efforts became directed at HCI standards development, which is discussed separately.
As my research developed, I increasingly recognized the needs to consider developers as users of development methods, with their own unique characteristics and needs. The success of a development method to provide usable systems is first dependent on the development method being usable by its users, namely the developers involved. This is currently the subject of my research efforts in developing the Usability First approach to development.
The latest direction in which I have gone is into the area of universal accessibility. The Universal Access Reference Model which I helped develop is increasingly being used as a basis for organizing international standards and other forms of guidance to assist developers in analyzing , deesigning, and evaluating universal accessibility issues.
Jim A. Carter, Developing e-Commerce Systems, Prentice Hall, 2002.
This is the first textbook to describe the various development life cycle activities necessary to develop and maintain a major e-Commerce system. It is supported by a cyber supplement that provides links to the latest information on and examples of e-Commerce systems.
Jim A. Carter, Puting Usability First, currently being completed.
This is an advanced book (for senior undergraduate and
and for information technology professionals) that deals with the
of Software Engineering and Human Computer Interaction in the
of Web sties and other highly interactive systems. It focuses on
the users' needs for usable systems with the developers' need for a
approach to development. The approach taken in the book has gained
acceptance within the ISO Software Ergonomics committee and is
in a number of International Standards, including ISO 9241-129, SO
9241-210, ISO 14915-1, ISO 14915-2, ISO/IEC 25060. This book will
help developers to apply a variety of research findings from Computer
Usability Engineering, Human-Computer Interaction, Commerce, Psychology
and other fields. It also helps them to identify and apply relevant ISO
ergonomic standards. The book discusses a wide range of analysis
that need to be considered to fully understand the different needs of
groups of users and then provides design guidance that is based on
potential answers to these questions. It has been tested in varous
Usability Engineering courses at the University of Saskatchewan.
The following major papers explored important issues before their significance was widely understood and/or accepted:
J. Carter & D. Fourney, 2004, Using an Universal Access Reference Model to Identify Further Guidance that Belongs in ISO 16071, Universal Access in the Information Society, 31(1) 17-29.
This paper presents the first published reference model for assessing accessibility. This model is notable for being blame-free, and recognizing the multi-channel nature of communications. It also involves both the environment and shared context between suers and systems.
J. Carter & N. Sheehan, 2004, From Competition to Cooperation:E-tailing's Integration With Retailing, Business Horizons, 47/2 71-87.
This paper presents an indepth discussion of how e-Cooperatives can help independent businesses compete with large chainstores and Internet e-tailers.
J. Carter, 2002, A Framework for the Development of Multimedia Systems for Use in Engineering Education, Computers & Education, 39:111-128.
This paper provides a framework for developing multimedia applications that is based on a combination of the International Standard (ISO 14915) on Software Ergonomics for Multimedia User Interfaces and various approaches to educational psychology.
J. Carter, 1999, Incorporating Standards and Guidelines in an Approach that balances Usability Concerns for Developers and End Users, Interacting With Computers, 12:2 179-206.
This paper discusses the need and the potential to provide developers with usable guidance to help them create usable systems to meet the various needs of different groups of users.
J.A. Carter, J.M. Lukey, and M.F. Schweighardt, 1991. The Action-Modifier-Object-Attribute (AMOA) Classification of User-Oriented Functions, International Journal of Man-Machine Studies, 34:1-22.
This paper considered how variations between similar functions could be accommodated by generalized functions that could provide consistency across and support integration between a diverse set of applications. The consistent use of a relatively small set of generalized functions provided the initial basis for the development and success of the World Wide Web which appeared three years later.
J.A. Carter and J.B. Tubman,1987. Integrated Software: Past, Present, and Future, Future Computing Systems, 2:2 151-181.
This paper analyzed the "trend of increasing sophistication in the development of programs and operating systems to provide ease of use and the ability to share information between users and uses." This trend has continued to this day, assisted by the standardization due to the World Wide Web and the integration that is leading to increasingly complex e-Commerce systems.
J.A. Carter, 1986. A Taxonomy of User-Oriented Functions, International Journal of Man-Machine Studies, 24: 195-292.
This paper provides detailed results on the potential for confusion that results from different people using different terms to refer to the same computing functions. It came before icons were broadly accepted as preferable to potentially conflicting names for common computer functions and objects. this paper was among the various sources that led to the ISO 11581 set of international standards relating to "Icon symbols & functions" which began in 1990 and is continuing to be developed.
J.A. Carter and H.J.M. Everett, 1985. A Hierarchy of User-Oriented Functions, INFOR, 23:4, 417-429.
This paper was an early discussion of the study that led to the much larger paper discussed immediately above.
B. Krawchenko and J. Carter, 1983. A Statistical Profile of Dissidents in Ukraine before 1972. Journal of Ukrainian Studies, #15, pp. 85-88.
This paper reported findings with little analysis of their potential significance, as in:
"Our sample here included 659 individuals: 86 per cent were white collar staff ... The vast majority of those belonging to the white-collar category were in fact members of the intelligentsia."
However the paper was based on a funded study that was initiated in response to earlier research work of mine that identified this trend and suggested that it could lead to troubles for the Soviets because of their increasing dependence on information workers. It should be noted that it was an engineer, Gorbachov, who presided over the dismantling of the Soviet union half a decade later.
|F. Huang, J. Titus, A. Wolinski, K. Schneider, and J.A. Carter, 2008, XML-Based Tools For Creating, Mapping, and Transforming Usability Engineering Requirements, pp 91-113||in A. Seffah, J.
Vanderdonckt, and M. Desmarais, Human-Centered Software Engineering:
Architectures and Models-Driven Integration, Klewer/Springer.
|J. Carter, J. Liu, K. Schneider, D. Fourney, 2005, Transforming User Requirements into Software Specifications||in A. Seffath, J. Guliksen, and M.D. Desmarais, ed., Human-Centered Software Engineering: Integrating Usability in the Development Process, Klewer/Springer.|
|J.A. Carter, 1991, Combining Task Analysis with Software Engineering in a Methodology for Designing Interactive Systems, pp. 209-234.||in J. Karat, ed., Taking Design Seriously: Practical Techniques for Human-Computer Interaction Design, Academic Press, Boston, MA,|
|J.A. Carter and M. Schweighardt, 1987. The Basis for User-Oriented Context Sensitive Functions, pp. 1027-1032.||Proceedings of the Second IFIP Conference on Human-Computer Interaction, Stuttgart, F.R. Germany, August, 1987, published as: H.J. Bollinger and B. Shackel (eds.), Human-Computer Interaction - INTERACT '87, Amsterdam, Elsevier Science Publishers, B.V.|
|J.A. Carter, 1986. Integrated Software: The Promise, The Product, and the Problems, pp. 175-184.||Proceedings of the Second International Symposium on Human Factors in Organization Design and Management, Vancouver, B.C., published as: O. Brown Jr. and H.W. Hendricks (eds.), Human Factors in Organizational Design and Management II, Amsterdam, Elsevier Science Publishers, B.V.|
|R.G. Walker and J.A. Carter, 1986, User Preference in Menu Based Interface Design, pp. 185-192.||Proceedings of the Second International Symposium on Human Factors in Organizational Design and Management, Vancouver, B.C., published as: O. Brown Jr. and H.W. Hendricks (eds.) Human Factors in Organizational Design and Management II, Amsterdam, Elsevier Science Publishers, B.V.|
|J.A. Carter, 1985. A Taxonomy of User-Oriented Data Processing Functions, pp. 335-342.||Proceedings of the Second Mid Central Ergonomics/Human Factors Conference, West Lafayette, published as: R. Eberts and C.G. Eberts (eds.), Trends in Ergonomics/Human Factors II, Amsterdam, Elsevier Science Publishers, B.V.|
|J.A. Carter, 1984. User-Oriented Structured Design of Data Processing Applications, pp. 259-268.||Proceedings of the First Symposium on Human Factors in Organizational Design and Management, Honolulu, published as: H.W. Hendrick and O. Brown Jr. (eds.), Human Factors in Organizational Design and Management, Amsterdam, Elsevier Science Publishers, B.V.|
|D. Fourney and J. Carter, 2008. The Ongoing Evolution of Standards to Meet the Needs of the Deaf and Hard of Hearing, Proceedings of the 2008 Annual Meeting of the Human Factors Society, New York, NY, USA, pp. 561-565|
|L. Tang, D. Fourney, F. Huang,
and J. Carter, 2008. Secondary Encoding,
of the 2008 Annual Meeting of the Human Factors Society,
New York, NY, USA, pp 566-570.
|J. Carter and D. Fourney, 2007, Techniques to Assist in Developing
Accessibility Engineers, Assets'07, Tempe, AZ
|D. Fourney and J. Carter, 2007,
I Want My Money! Tactile Access To Automated Banking Machines,
Proceedings of Workshop on Tactile and Haptic Interaction, Tokyo, Japan
|J. Carter and J.B.F. van Erp,
2006. Ergonomics Of Tactile And
Haptic Interactions, Proceedings of the 2006 Annual Meeting of the
Human Factors Society, San Francisco, USA, 2 pages
|K. Nesbitt and Jim Carter, 2006.
Applying The GOTHI Model of Tactile
and Haptic Interactions, Proceedings of the 2006 Annual Meeting of
the Human Factors Society, San Francisco, USA, 6 pages.
|J.B.F. van Erp, J. Carter &
I. Andrew, 2006. ISO's Work on Tactile
and Haptic Interaction Guidelines, Proceedings of EuroHaptics 2006,
National Academy of Technologies of France, Paris, France, July, pp.
|D. W. Fourney and J. A. Carter,
2006, Ergonomic Accessibility
Standards, Proceedings of 16th
Interantional Conference on Ergonomics, International Ergonomics
Association, Maastricht, The Netherlands.
|D. Fourney and J. Carter, 2006. A standard method of profiling the
accessibility needs of computer users with vision and hearing
impairments, Proceedings of CVHI 2006 Conference and Workshop
on Assistive Technologies for Vision and Hearing Impairment,
EURO-ASSIST-VHI-4, Kufstein, Austria, July, 6 pages.
|D. Fourney and J. Carter, 2006. A standard method of profiling
accessibility needs (using the CAP), Proceedings Conference on
e-Society 2006, International Association for Development of the
Information Society, Dublin, Ireland, Vol. II, pp. 138-142.
|J. Carter, 2006. Temporal issues regarding
accessibility, Proceedings of the Workshop on Accessible Media,
University of Potsdam, Potsdam, Germany
|D. Fourney and J. Carter, 2006, The Future Looks Bright:
International Standsrds for Accessible
Software, Proceedings of the CSUN 2006 Technology and Persons with
Disabilities Conference, Los Angeles, CA.
|J. Carter, 2005, A Tactile/Haptic Interface Object Reference Model, Proceedings of Guidelines on Tactile and Haptic Interactions (GOTHI-05), Saskatoon, SK, Canada.|
|J. Carter and D. Fourney, 2005, Research Based Tactile and Haptic Interaction Guidelines, Proceedings of Guidelines on Tactile and Haptic Interactions (GOTHI-05), Saskatoon, SK, Canada.|
|D. Fourney and J. Carter, 2005, Initiating
Guidance on Tactile
and Haptic Interactions, Proceedings of Guidelines on Tactile and
Haptic Interactions (GOTHI-05), Saskatoon, SK, Canada.
|P. Reed, S. Henry, J. Williams, J.Carter, H. Blanchard, A. Lund, and S. Lewis, 2000, Software Usability Standards for the Next Millennium: Key Issues and Future Challenges, Proceedings of the 14th Triennial Congress of the International Ergonomics Association and the 44th Annual Meeting of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society, July, San Diego, CA.|
|J. Carter, 2000, Motivating Multimedia, Proceedings of the 14th Triennial Congress of the International Ergonomics Association and the 44th Annual Meeting of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society, July, San Diego, CA.|
|J.A. Carter, 1997, Putting usability first in the design of Web sites, Proceedings of WebNet'97, November, Toronto, ON, pp. 142-148.|
|L. Kennedy and J. Carter, On developing a Web-based operating environment, Proceedings of WebNet'97, November, Toronto, ON, pp. 312-318.|
|W.E. Hefley, E.A. Buie, G.F. Lynch, M.J.Muller, D.G. Hoecker, J. Carter, and J.T. Roth, 1994, Integrating Human Factors With Software Engineering, Proceedings of the 1994 Annual Meeting of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society, pp. 315-319.|
|J.A. Carter, 1992, Managing to Succeed with Rapid Prototyping, Proceedings of the 1992 Annual Meeting of the Human Factors Society, pp. 404-408.|
|J.A. Carter, 1992, Standards, the Future, and Designers, Proceedings of the 1992 Annual Meeting of the Human Factors Society, pp. 448-452.|
|J.A. Carter, 1990, Analyzing, Designing, Developing, and Evaluating Adaptive Systems, Proceedings of the 1990 Annual Meeting of the Human Factors Society, pp. 334-335.|
|J.A. Carter, 1990, The Dimensions and Degrees of Adaptation: A Synergistic Analysis, Proceedings of the 1990 Annual Meeting of the Human Factors Society, pp. 336-340.|
|J.A. Carter, 1990, Juggling Concern for Completeness and Consistency with Concerns for Flexibility and Adaptability Using MOST, Proceedings of the 1990 Annual Meeting of the Human Factors Society, pp. 341-345.|
|J.A. Carter and M. Schweighardt, 1987. A Context Knowledge Base to Provide Flexibility for User Interface and Other Management Systems, Proceedings of the 1987 IEEE International Conference on Systems, Man and Cybernetics, Arlington, VA., October, 1987.|
|J.A. Carter, 1987. Towards the Integration of Integrated Software Within Organizations, AFIPS Conference Proceedings Volume 56: 1987 National Computer Conference, June 15-18, Chicago, 341-348.|
|J.A. Carter, 1986. An Integrated Model for Defining the Role of User Interface and Other Management Systems, Proceedings of the 1986 IEEE International Conference on Systems, Man and Cybernetics, Atlanta, GA., pp. 32-37.|
|J.A. Carter, 1986. An Alternate View of the Generations of Software Development, Canadian Information Processing Society Session '86 Proceedings, Vancouver, B.C., pp. 233-240.|
|J.A. Carter, 1985. Human Factors Concerns For Integrated Software, Human Factors Association of Canada, 18th Annual Congress Proceedings, Hull, Quebec, pp. 137-140.|
|J.A. Carter, 1985, The Development and Use of A Taxonomy of User-Oriented Command Names, Canadian Information Processing Society Session '85 Proceedings, Montreal, Quebec, pp. 400-407.|
|J.A. Carter, 1985, Human Factors Design Concerns of Integrated Software, Interface '85 Proceedings, Minneapolis, Minnesota, pp. 29-36.|
|J.A. Carter and H.J.M. Everett, 1984, A Hierarchy of User-Oriented Functions, Canadian Information Processing Society Session '84 Proceedings, Calgary, Alberta, pp. 459-463.|
|J.A. Carter, 1983, Computers in Industrial Education: An Often Forgotten But Very Fertile Field, Association for Educational Data Systems Twenty-First Annual Convention Proceedings, Portland, Oregon, pp. 69-72.|
|J.A. Carter, 1993, HCI Standards Issues and Opportunities: What's Happening, Where, When, and How?, Computer Systems Technical Group Bulletin, Human Factors Society, April/August, Vol. 20, Is. 1, pp. 4-5.|
|J.A. Carter, 1992, HCI Standards Issues and Opportunities: Standards are Inevitable - But When, Computer Systems Technical Group Bulletin, Human Factors Society, December, Vol. 19, Is. 2, p. 15.|
|J. A. Carter,1992, The Theoretical Basis for Shared Context in Human-Computer Interactions, the report of the Context Models and Information Theory subgroup in H. Maskery and J. Meads, "Context: In the Eyes of Users and in Computer Systems", SIGCHI Bulletin, ACM, Vol. 24, No. 2, pp. 16-18.|
|J.A. Carter, 1991, HCI Standards Update (2nd annual), Computer Systems Technical Group Bulletin, Human Factors Society, Aug., Vol 18, Is. 2.|
|J.A. Carter and J. Hancock, 1991, A Context for Designing Adaptations: The Multi-Oriented Structured Task Analysis (MOST) Methodology, SIGCHI Bulletin, ACM, January, Vol. 23, No. 1, pp. 25-29.|
|J.A. Carter, 1990, The Universe of Design is Unfolding (As It Should!): The report of the "Cosmic Glue" subgroup of the CHI'90 Workshop on Taking Design Seriously: Exploring Techniques useful in HCI Design, SIGCHI Bulletin, ACM, October, Vol. 22, No. 2, pp. 46-48.|
|J.A. Carter, 1990, HCI Standards Update, Computer Systems Technical Group Bulletin, Human Factors Society, May, Vol 17, Is. 1, p. 6.|
|J.A. Carter, 1981. How to Buy Microcomputers...and How & Where to Use Them. School Shop Magazine, April, pp. 28-33.|
|J. Carter, 1982. Computer Uses in the Mississippi Valley Conference, Mississippi Valley Industrial Teacher Education Conference, 6 pages|
|J.A. Carter, 1980. An Overview of Computer Related Texts and Journals. Mississippi Valley Industrial Teacher Education Conference, 14 pages.|
|Factors Influencing the Use and Priorities of Computing Applications in Industrial Teacher Education Departments in the Mississippi Valley conference, Ph.D. thesis, 1982, University of Illinois.|
|A Computerized Semantic Dictionary Evaluation of Students' Attitudes Towards Their Courses, M. Ed. thesis, 1980, University of Alberta.|